Retrouvez ci dessous ma tribune dans Libération  :

Dans la nuit de mardi à mercredi, les députés ont rejeté l’amendement instaurant en France le reporting, l’obligation pour les grandes entreprises de rendre publics leurs activités et impôts payés à l’étranger. Il s’agit pourtant d’une nécessité démocratique.

une-libeHier à l’Assemblée Nationale, la France a manqué une occasion d’être crédible dans sa volonté de contrecarrer les pratiques fiscales des multinationales.

Près de 80 milliards d’euros. C’est ce que les finances publiques françaises perdent chaque année en optimisation, fraude et évasion fiscale. La plus grande partie de cet argent est soustraite au fisc français par des grands groupes, des multinationales, qui pratiquent des montages complexes et opaques, impliquant le plus souvent un paradis fiscal ou un territoire particulièrement clément sur la fiscalité… Dans ce contexte de mondialisation de l’optimisation fiscale agressive, il devient donc essentiel de pouvoir «tracer» les bénéfices des entreprises, et s’assurer que l’impôt est bien payé là où l’activité économique a lieu, et où les employés sont présents.

Or bien souvent, les Etats, et les Etats européens eux-mêmes, comme l’a rappelé le scandale Luxleaks, autorisent les multinationales, à travers des accords passés avec elle, à pratiquer ces montages complexes et opaques qui creusent le trou des recettes publiques. C’est la raison pour laquelle il est crucial que soit rendue complètement transparents la carte des bénéfices des multinationales. Non seulement aux administrations, mais aussi aux journalistes d’investigation, aux lanceurs d’alerte, et à tout citoyen intéressé.

Conscient de cette nécessité démocratique, le Parlement européen, malgré les réticences de la Commission européenne et du Conseil a élaboré puis voté en 2015 plusieurs textes qui recommandent de mettre en œuvre une telle transparence. Le dernier en date a été adopté mercredi 16 décembre. Dans chacun de ces textes, nous nous prononçons en faveur d’un «reporting pays par pays» des multinationales, obligatoire et surtout public. Les parlementaires européens de tous bords, socialistes comme conservateurs, ont soutenu cette mesure à chaque fois.

La déclaration est simple à réaliser, les entreprises disposant déjà de ces informations sur leur activité, leurs bénéfices, les impôts payés et leurs effectifs pays par pays, mais elles s’en tiennent opportunément à une publication dite «consolidée» (à l’échelle globale du groupe) de ces rapports.

Or cette mesure constitue la clef de toute étape ultérieure de lutte pour identifier et empêcher les montages fiscaux abusifs, et par conséquent, pour restituer aux recettes publiques l’argent de l’optimisation fiscale agressive et de l’évasion fiscale. Les lanceurs d’alerte, les journalistes, les ONG, les économistes sont unanimes sur ce point : un reporting pays par pays n’aura d’effet significatif sur les pratiques des multinationales que s’il est complet et public.

La France l’a déjà rendu obligatoire et public pour les banques en 2013, sans qu’on ait constaté de quelconques difficultés pour elles depuis cette date…

L’attitude du secrétaire d’Etat au Budget n’en est donc que plus surprenante. Hier, dans la précipitation, il a bloqué la mesure au milieu du gué. Certes, le reporting pays par pays est passé, mais il ne sera pas public. Christian Eckert a fait retirer du budget rectificatif pour 2015 l’amendement Cherki-Galut-Potier qui l’introduisait. C’est encore une triste illustration des atteintes que la Ve République permet de porter aux décisions parlementaires. À 1h30 du matin, alors même que l’amendement est adopté par une majorité de députés, Christian Eckert fait interrompre la séance 40 minutes. Aux moyens d’arguments fallacieux, car les études montrent que la compétitivité des multinationales se trouve le plus souvent renforcée par la transparence, il demande à une poignée de parlementaires de modifier leur décision. Un second vote est convoqué et cette mesure, tant attendue en Europe, préconisée par tous les spécialistes de l’optimisation fiscale, est rejetée, aux termes d’un véritable coup de force.

En tant que citoyen, c’est un immense dépit de savoir que l’on se prive des premiers moyens nécessaires pour rétablir l’équité fiscale entre les ménages, les PME, et les grands groupes qui payent en France, une fois leurs montages appliqués, moins de 10% d’impôt sur les sociétés …

Et en tant que citoyen et parlementaire, j’y vois une preuve supplémentaire qu’on n’aboutit qu’au pire en bafouant les décisions du Parlement !

Le ministre des Finances Michel Sapin doit présenter début 2016 une loi-cadre sur la transparence : quelle est désormais sa crédibilité ? Son secrétaire d’Etat vient de rejeter brutalement le niveau nécessaire de transparence pour lutter contre les pratiques fiscales aux marges de la légalité.

Il ne s’agit pas d’être «pro» ou «anti» entreprises, car cette mesure, je voudrais le souligner encore, ne porte pas préjudice, même en matière de concurrence, aux entreprises concernées. Il s’agit seulement, et c’est bien le minimum si l’on entend œuvrer pour la justice fiscale, de savoir où partent les profits qui ne sont pas imposés en France, et donc de rétablir un droit fondamental : l’égalité devant l’impôt.

Retrouvez cette tribune sur le site de Libération

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