Madame Cecilia MALMSTRÖM
Commissaire européenne au Commerce

Bruxelles, le 3 juillet 2017

Objet : Dossier R648 – Demande de réexamen au titre de l’expiration des mesures anti-dumping applicables aux importations de certains tissus techniques de fibre de verre à maille ouverte originaires de la République populaire de Chine

Madame la Commissaire ; Chère Madame Malmström,

Par le présent courrier, je veux vous relayer mes plus vives inquiétudes quant aux conclusions de l’enquête de la Commission européenne sur la demande de réexamen, sollicitée par les représentants de l’industrie européenne du secteur des tissus techniques de fibre de verre à maille ouverte, au titre de l’expiration des mesures anti-dumping applicables à certaines importations originaires de la République populaire de Chine (dossier anti-dumping R648).

Depuis 2011, en effet, des mesures anti-dumping de l’ordre de 48 à 62% ont été imposées sur un certain nombre de tissus techniques de fibre de verre à maille ouverte, afin de permettre aux industriels européens de mieux résister à la concurrence déloyale chinoise. L’introduction de ces mesures ont été salutaires pour l’industrie européenne, qui a pu ainsi accroître sa production, rétablir ses marges et créer des emplois.

Confrontés à l’expiration imminente des mesures anti-dumping, les producteurs européens ont officiellement demandé, en 2016, une prolongation des mesures, et une procédure de réexamen au titre de l’expiration s’est alors engagée à l’initiative de la Commission européenne. L’enquête devait permettre de mettre en évidence le risque de perpétuation, ou non, du dumping chinois dans le secteur de la fibre de verre, ainsi que, en cas de perpétuation du dumping, le risque de préjudice économique, ou non, pour l’industrie européenne du fait de ces pratiques.

Malgré la stratégie délibérée de non-coopération des opérateurs chinois, la Commission européenne est parvenue à recueillir des preuves manifestes du risque de perpétuation du dumping dans le secteur, en cas d’expiration des mesures. Les services de la Commission ont notamment établi que la marge de dumping variait, dans le secteur de la fibre de verre, entre 35.1% et 205.5%.
En revanche, au motif que la situation économique de l’industrie européenne concernée s’est améliorée au cours des cinq dernières années et que les flux commerciaux suivent de nouvelles trajectoires géographiques, l’enquête de la Commission ne reconnait pas que la perpétuation du dumping chinois impacterait négativement les producteurs et les prix européens. Conséquence de cette enquête, les services de la Commission ont informé les parties intéressées du non-renouvellement des mesures anti-dumping applicables à certaines importations chinoises du secteur de la fibre de verre.

Je souhaite vous signaler mon incompréhension quant aux conclusions de l’enquête de la Commission.

Il me semble en effet que la consolidation économique du secteur européen de la fibre de verre, depuis 2011, est largement imputable au maintien de mesures anti-dumping fortes: le retrait desdites mesures, qui se traduirait automatiquement par une exposition renouvelée des producteurs européens au dumping chinois, pourrait provoquer une baisse immédiate des prix, et ainsi remettre en cause la position de marché des entreprises européennes. Cet élément d’analyse est complètement absent de l’enquête de la Commission.

Par ailleurs, il s’avère, à mes yeux, que certains paramètres n’ont pas du tout été pris en compte par les services de la Commission, et notamment le niveau considérable des surcapacités chinoises, dont le volume non-utilisé est équivalent à la taille du marché européen tout entier. Il suffirait que ces volumes, non-utilisés du fait de l’effet dissuasif produit par les mesures anti-dumping actuellement en vigueur, soient subitement expédiés en Europe pour que les prix s’effondrent. Les producteurs européens seraient alors incapables de juguler les effets de cette concurrence déloyale.

Par conséquent, je crains fort que la non-reconduction de mesures anti-dumping dans le secteur des tissus techniques de fibre de verre à maille ouverte fragilise considérablement les producteurs européens, et se traduise par la disparition d’emplois qualifiés, dans un secteur qui, par ailleurs, contribue à la transition énergétique.

Une telle évolution s’inscrirait totalement à contre-courant de vos prises de position récentes, ainsi que de celles du Président de la Commission européenne, M. Juncker, sur la « maîtrise de la mondialisation ». À la lumière de ces éléments, j’estime qu’un réexamen des conclusions de l’enquête de la Commission européennes serait plus qu’opportun.
Me tenant à votre disposition, je vous prie d’agréer, Madame la commissaire, l’expression de mes salutations respectueuses.

Bien à vous,


signature-PEMEP Emmanuel MAUREL (S&D)
INTA Committee
European Parliament
ASP 14G209, Rue Wiertz 60, B-1047 Brussels
Tel: +32 (0)2 28 45747

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